Ways to Nonverbal Communication
Communication without language
Understanding the language of non-verbal communication is of particular importance, because it is not always possible to transfer knowledge only in words, without feelings and emotions. And the feelings themselves, in most cases, need non-verbal means of communication. Knowing non-verbal language, one can find out what those around us really think about us. In addition, non-verbal communication can show a person’s ability to control himself.
There are many classifications that include various non-speech means of communication - voice intonation, tactile sensations, body movement, spatial methods of communication.
Non-verbal communication communication tools perform many functions:
- help to create an image of a partner;
- Express the quality of communication and signal changes in the relationship between communication partners;
- it is an indicator of a person’s mental state;
- can be used to clarify, enhance the emotional color of the above;
- contribute to the support of optimally comfortable proximity of partners at the psychological level of communication;
- indicate the status of communicating people.
There are several sciences that are engaged in the study of nonverbal communication:
- Kinesika - studies the features of facial expressions, gestures, gaze and postures during communication;
- Proxemics is a field of social psychology that studies the influence of spatial parameters on interpersonal relationships;
- Takeshka - includes the study of tangible signals that people exchange in the process of communication.
What does a person's face say?
Facial expression or muscular facial mobility during communication is very informative and gives more than 70% of the information. Scientists believe that a person speaks much more than a speech apparatus. There are 6 main emotions - the manifestation of anger, joy, fear, sadness, surprise and disgust. At any of them there is a coordination of all facial muscles, but eyebrows and lips have more information.
When communicating, people look into the interlocutor’s eyes for no longer than 10 seconds. If a person averts his eyes during intercourse, then the likelihood of a poor attitude towards words or a communication partner is high. A long look can be perceived as a challenge, or betray an excessive interest in communication.
There are several views that differ in specificity:
- Business look - focuses on the forehead of the person, which allows the partner to be convinced of the serious intentions of the interlocutor.
- Social view - there is a concentration on the triangle created by the eyes and lips, used in casual social conversations.
- Intimate - in this case, the gaze is not directed into the eyes, but lower, in the neck, to the chest. He says that the interlocutors are very interesting to each other.
- Looking sideways, without turning your head (squint) - can be a sign of both interest and hostility. In the first case, he is accompanied by a smile or slightly raised eyebrows, in the second - lowered corners of the lips and a frowning forehead.
In the process of researching non-verbal communication methods, specialists are confronted with very interesting facts.related to facial expressions:
- The most short-term emotion is surprise, its duration can be only a fraction of a second.
- The feelings that we carefully hide, gives the left side of the face, and those emotions that a person wants to show everyone - right. This is due to the fact that the left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for speech and mental function, and the right one for emotional manifestations and imagination. Since the control is cross-sectional, the activity of the left hemisphere is manifested on the right, and that of the right hemisphere is on the left.
- Contempt, among other emotions, is distinguished by the fact that it involves only one part of the face — a person can contemptuously twist one corner of the lips or raise an eyebrow.
The main non-verbal means of communication - gestures, facial expressions, movements that accompany a person’s speech should be considered separately.
The verbosity of the hand movements
According to Quintillian, “without the help of the hands, any speech is weak and insufficient”, and in the Polish magazine Przhekruy an aphorism was printed, with which it is difficult not to agree - “a complex thought is easier to express with the help of hands”.
The sign language of communication includes several groups of movements:
Gestures for greetings, farewells, symbolizing prohibition, consent, denial, used to attract attention, etc .;
With their help, a person evaluates and expresses his attitude (approving gestures or talking about dissatisfaction, confidential, symbolizing distrust, etc.);
They have meaning only in combination with speech accompaniment.
Gestures are very informative actions that all people use constantly. Illustrative gestures are able to connect objects that are only in imagination. Gestures-regulators suggest how the interlocutor relates to a particular situation.
With the help of gestures, emblems, you can say goodbye to a person or greet him. Some people in everyday life have specific gestures, they are also called adapters - scratching the nose, touching the ear lobe, rubbing hands, touching the hands of the interlocutor, and so on.
But with the help of gestures-affector you can find out what a person really feels, even if he is silent. Oswald Spengler was sure that a person lying in the language of words would necessarily reveal himself in sign language, because they are usually not paid attention.
By the way, the “growing nose from lies” mentioned in the fairy tale about Pinocchio is not a complete fiction. In fact, this body is very sensitive to lies. He begins to scratch and even gets bigger. Scientists managed to find out the cause of this phenomenon.
There is a link gestures in communication with the nationality of the person. For example, if for the Finns it is enough to gesticulate once per hour, then for the Italians this figure increases to 80 times, and for Mexicans to 180.
Spatial communicative ways of communication
Communication implies spatial organization. If we take animals as an example, they have their own habitat - a pride, which they protect from outside invasion. But scientific research has shown that protected areas and zones are not alien to humans either.
They can be interpreted as non-verbal means of business communication,allowing not only to evaluate their own behavior, but also to make predictions about certain management situations. The first study of this aspect was taken up by the anthropologist E.Hall, who introduced the name “proxemics”, which literally translates as “proximity”.
The main characteristics of proxemics are the position of interlocutors in communication and the distance between them, they are directly related to cultural and national factors. Psychologists managed to make a number of conclusions:
- The human body, like the animals itself, has a spatial zone around it, which it estimates as a personal territory.
- The size of personal space depends on the social identity of a person and his nationality. So, among the peoples of the south and the townspeople this distance is less, and in the north and in the village - more.
- All personal space is divided into zones, and other people are allowed into this or that zone, depending on how significant and emotionally close they are to a person.
E. Hall has studied in detail all the distances that other people can approach to a person. Naturally, we are talking about the culture of North America.The author of the idea divided them into 4 zones:
- intimate distance - only the closest and closest people are allowed here;
- personal - suitable for daily communication with friends, friends;
- social - in this case we are talking more about the communication of people from different positions;
- public - acceptable in order to speak in front of a large crowd of people.
What do these or other gestures mean?
The theory is good and helps to understand a lot about non-verbal means of communication, however, it will not be superfluous to know the practical side. You can make a small dictionary of basic gestures that people use involuntarily and thanks to it you can recognize the true thoughts of a person:
- A man with open palms - frank.
- He scratches his nose or touches it when communicating - the interlocutor is either lying or not sure what he is saying.
- Hands make quick, fussy movements - a person is nervous or very embarrassed.
- Hands clenched into fists - they say about aggressive mood or excessive agitation.
- During communication, the interlocutor begins to shake the villi off the clothes — in this way, he expresses his disapproval.
- A person scratches or rubs his eyelids - he cannot restrain his own suspicion.
- At the moment the chin is rubbed, a person has an active mental activity - he makes an important decision.
- If, during a conversation, the head of the interview participant is tilted to one side, then this confirms his interest.
- A short glance from top to bottom in combination with the head thrown back - more often means an increase in the distance, the interlocutor is proud or feels his own superiority.
To more subtly recognize all the nuances of non-verbal manifestations of communication, mimic and gestural vocabulary can be supplemented with basic eloquent postures:
- The interviewee relies on something with his hands - this suggests that he wants to protect himself from the conversation or feels that there is no required contact with the person.
- With his head held high and his hands clasped behind his back, he demonstrates his superiority over all others.
- The obvious signs of trust in communication are not crossed hands, unbuttoned top buttons on a shirt, a weakened or removed tie.
- If the upper limbs are crossed, it means that the person is skeptical or is trying to defend himself against his opponent.
- During a meal or social event, the interlocutor does not just take a glass, a cup, but embraces them with the palms of both hands - this is how his nervousness manifests, which he tries to hide from others.
- Coupled fingers signalize that the interviewee is disappointed or negative about the situation or the speaker.
- If a person during communication interferes with chaotic movements, he cannot sit still - it is a matter of tension and anxiety. Also in this situation, frequent blinking is possible.
- The person sits, having thrown rugi for a head and having crossed his legs - this is a demonstration of neglect.
In short, you should familiarize yourself with all aspects of human communication in order to be able to recognize the interlocutor. After all, even a well-wielding person cannot control his own view, movement of hands, posture, etc.
Verbal and non-verbal communication is a whole communicative complex that allows people to communicate.They complement each other, making communication more intense, emotional.