The strangest popular movements in the USSR
Leisure in the USSR was regulated. There was no shortage of circles and sections. However, many Soviet people found other hobbies: they organized jousting tournaments, created book cults, were tempered by the “Baby” system.
Ivanovtsy - followers of Porfiry Ivanov, were the strangest popular movement in the USSR. They lived in a closed community, their leader didn’t have the clearest biography - he was a thief in his youth, collaborated with the administration in the camp, lived in the occupied territory during the war, spent 12 years in a madhouse. The main goal of life "according to Ivanov" was the achievement of immortality by man. The teacher promised the people what every person wants - good health. This was the root of his system. Porfiry Ivanov believed: to get rid of the disease is not enough to recover, you need to change your life. After all, a disease is a punishment, and if it is not corrected, the illness will definitely come back. The first rule of Porfiry is to swim in the morning and in the evening. Second, you need to find a poor person and help him.Next - you should not drink, not smoke, be sure to greet people. If someone refused to follow these tips, Porfiry Ivanov simply did not accept him. He demanded unquestioning obedience. In 1974, Porfiry Ivanov's wife fell ill. She received a serious injury: while laying hay fell from a high barn. Porphyry was unswerving: Ulyana had to ask him, like everyone. But she could not call her husband a “Master”. Porfiry could not help his wife. She never recovered from the disease and died the same year. Ivanov himself died at the age of 85. His followers believe that the Master is alive.
The term “ufology” appeared in the United States in 1959, but Soviet ufology began in 1946, when science fiction writer Alexander Kazantsev suggested that the cause of the Tunguska phenomenon in 1908 could be an accident of an alien aircraft. In 1947, the Moscow Planetarium hosted a lecture-dispute "Mysteries of the Tunguska meteorite", organized by Felix Siegel and Kazantsev. Information about UFOs "from the public" began to take in 1956. Since that time, thousands of Soviet people have become ufologists.They filled up letters to the editors of newspapers and magazines, but official scientific bodies were in no hurry to announce these signals as a sensation. After examining thousands of letters, scientists have concluded that they are either unsubstantiated, or they report well-known things that are of no interest to ufology. Not a single message about landing "UFO"; Not a single message about contacts with "UFO pilots"; Not a single report of the abduction of "UFO" was received. However, the popular Soviet Ufology lived its own life, district closed congresses were held, people shared information, published samizdat and waited for “contact of the third kind”.
In Moscow, the “patriots” called those young people who gathered at the Patriarch's Ponds. The most significant and most organized group were those who came to the Patriarch's as the main "Bulgakov place". The cult of "The Master and Margarita", since the mid-1960s, has developed rapidly. Meetings in the "Bulgakov places", the study of occult literature, gatherings at the "Golgotha" - at the grave of Bulgakov, the publication of samizdat - all of this was done by a wide range of people, from high school students to gray-haired professors.It is noteworthy that Bulgakov’s legacy could not reach us - Mikhail Afanasyevich was very fond of burning manuscripts. The manuscripts of the novel The Master and Margarita were not fully preserved, and the first version of the novel was completely destroyed by the author. Bulgakov destroyed individual sheets, packs of sheets and entire draft notebooks with his works. He even confessed to the correspondence with one of his friends that the stove had become his favorite editorial, because with the same eagerness he “absorbs both laundry receipts” and poems.
The strongest cult of Tolkien was, of course, in the West. There, in the heyday of the hippie era, people pushed Gandalf to the presidency and bought up the “Lord of the Rings” in millions of copies. In the USSR, Tolkien began to be translated in the early 1980s: translations of The Hobbit and the first volume of The Lord of the Rings were published, as well as the samizdat translation of The Silmarillion, which was a special chic. Tolkien’s fascination with books came at the end of the 1980s. Tolkienists gathered for tournaments and socializing, corresponded, made their own uniforms and weapons. Eglador (aka Neskuchnik, aka Abomination (a collection on Thursdays in Neskuchny Garden) and Mandos (on Sundays in Tsaritsyno) were Tolkien "mays" in Moscow.
They called themselves vagantes and minstrels, performers of an author's song and free artists. Bard song as a genre began to develop in the 1960s. There is an opinion that its development was provoked "from above". The Soviet government was looking for ways to solve the problem of separating the people from politics and came up with the idea of developing amateur tourism of the “old school” - with tents, sitting around the campfire under guitar bust. The people accepted the challenge. Tourism in the USSR became a mass phenomenon, and with it the author's song. Since 1968, under Samara, bards began to hold the Grushinsky Festival, where songwriters from all parts of the country flowed. 600 people came to the first festival, 2.5 thousand to the second, more than 4 thousand to the third. Also, the bards gathered at the so-called “KSP”. Ironically, the bard movement, conceived as a means of increasing loyalty to the authorities, began to give the opposite effect: all sorts of people went to the bards, but mostly it was the scientific intelligentsia who loved not only to discuss power, but also to criticize it.