PMZ-1 Fire Pump (1934)

PMZ-1 Fire Pump (1934)

The first serial domestic fire engines were built on the chassis of AMO-F-15 trucks, and, without further ado, called them the same. In 1930, at the AMO plant, they mastered the production of the American truck of the Avtokar company. These cars were assembled from imported sets and called AMO-2, and those made with structural changes and from domestic materials were called AMO-3.

The extended chassis from the named model was designated AMO-4. On its basis, special vehicles, buses, vans, firefighters, etc. were manufactured. The first such “firefighter” was made in October 1931 at the metropolitan Miuss fire equipment plant. The novelty attracted, but its serial production was not mastered immediately.

In the 1920s. Various fire extinguishing tactics were carefully studied, and in this connection, discussions were held on how best to equip fire trucks. Our fire protection leaders paid special attention to studying the three most common methods of extinguishing fires: Germanic, American, and English.

Everything German at that time enjoyed great prestige among us, including the practice of fighting fire. What was the basis of the German method? Having rushed to the fire, the Germans first of all sent the fighters to the fire in order to destroy the burning strontium with special tools (axes with hooks and crowbars) to separate the part of the building that was not yet affected by the fire.

Having coped with this task even at the risk of their lives, they poured localized flames with water using as many hoses as possible. This method required the delivery to the fire of a significant number of well-trained people, equipped with a variety of very sophisticated devices.

The method justified itself in cities with low buildings, which was typical of then Germany. In this case, the main type of fire manna was the best suited auto pump with an extension for delivering the maximum number of firefighters on it, that is, the auto pump and autolinear combined in one design. Of the domestic cars produced then, the I-3 seemed the most suitable for this.

Low-power and low-speed "Yashka" - so popularly called this car - was produced in small batches,which did not allow in sufficient quantities to transfer it to the enterprises that produced fire engines. To fight the fire, our craftsmen adapted in the repair shops a similar “yashka” in construction, but more powerful foreign cars, recovered from existing scrap metal. The Packard trucks were the best for this. Alas, the aforementioned "hard workers" who remained after the First World War were few, moreover, they were considered hopelessly outdated, because they were created at the beginning of the last century. And yet the “light at the end of the tunnel” was already flashing. What was it expressed in?

In 1928, the USSR Government approved the “Plan for the industrialization of the country”, which provided for the reconstruction of the AMO automobile plant in order to increase the production of cars on it to 25 thousand a year. As soon as they mastered the manufacture of the AMO-4 chassis, the opportunity to build fire trucks based on them immediately opened up.
And the reconstruction of the enterprise went on as usual, and after the completion of its initial stage in September 1931, the plant was given the name of I.V. Stalin. Accordingly, the designation of the produced cars should be changed from AMO to VMS.

Renaming already manufactured products was impractical, and decided to do this, starting with the very first new model. The case soon presented itself. After the improvement of AMO-3, it was necessary to update the design documentation, which was designated in a new way, by assigning the next number.

So the ZIS-5 truck appeared. On its basis, they began to produce extended chassis ZIS-11, ZIS-12 and others. Each such chassis was intended for the manufacture of a specific special vehicle, and the 11th was for fire engines. Implemented this idea in 1934 at the Miussky plant.

Since then, two “fire engines” have been produced in our country - on the GAZ-AA chassis - the PGG-1, based on the ZIS-5 - the PMZ-1. However, the appearance of these machines was also promoted by such an important factor as the flaws of the AMO-F-15 fire truck, which, in the opinion of the “fastidious” firefighters, consisted in a number of manufacturing deficiencies. So, the bell rang weakly, the seats for the fighters were narrow and uncomfortable, the pump was not equipped with a vacuum gauge, there was no handwheel on the handle of the relief valve, etc. etc.

The main flaw was seen in the low power of the motor, which did not allow to supply the right amount of water to the fire.And if eliminating manufacturing defects was not a big problem, then it was not possible to increase the water supply at the AMO-F-15 fire brigade because it was impossible to force the motor. This required a more powerful engine, such as that of the GAZ-AA, and even better, like that of the ZIS-5 truck, on the long chassis of which the ZIS-11 mastered the production of PMZ-1 fire engines.
Here's what it looked like:

On the back of the frame ZIS-11 installed a two-stage centrifugal pump D-20. A gas tank was squeezed into the driver’s seat box, and under it was a power take-off shaft connecting the shafts of the clutch and transfer case (RK) located in the rear part of the cab. The lower output shank of the RK was connected with a cardan shaft to the main gear, and the upper one with a two-element cardan with a pump, near which the carburetor handwheel and the clutch release lever were secured.

The operation modes of the Republic of Kazakhstan (transmission, motion, neutral, pump operation) were controlled from the cab. On the frame was a superstructure, each side of which had a seat for six firefighters and coils with discharge arms. A similar, but larger, coil was hung in the back of the machine.

Above the pump inside the superstructure was placed a tank of water for first aid, connected by pipes to the pump. The take-off sleeves and various ladders were fastened above the superstructure, in the boxes of which fire tools and accessories were laid, and in the closing niches of the footrests there were shovels, hooks, crowbars, etc. A foam generator and two fire extinguishers were fastened on the right footboard, and a stander on the left. How did you manage this unit?

Arriving at the fire, the driver put the car closer to the pond. Squeezing the clutch, he turned on the pump and the direct gear and went on to control the pump in the back of the car. After laying the hose lines, the driver set up the engine for 1000 - 1500 rpm, which corresponded to the speedometer 30 - 40 km / h.

When the pump was filled with water, it began to flow out in a thin stream from the signal tube of the vacuum apparatus. If this did not happen, the driver filled the pump with water from the first-aid tank. As soon as a stream of water appeared from the signal tube, he opened the valves of the discharge arms, increased the engine speed to the required value and turned off the vacuum apparatus.

If necessary, provide first aid, the driver, shutting down the inlet fitting and filling the pump with brought water, turned it on.If water was taken from the main line, then it was not necessary to turn on the vacuum apparatus. To fill the first-aid tank with the pump running, it was necessary to open the corresponding valve, and after the appearance of a stream from the control tube, close it.

The reader should not think that managing the water supply process was so easy. In fact, considerable skill was required so that in a matter of seconds (not longer than a minute) to ensure a steady supply of water to the hoses.

The PMZ-1 was immediately liked by the fireman for a powerful engine, which enabled using splitters to ensure the operation of four barrels at once. Due to this, a small fire was often possible, using the brought water, to extinguish with the help of one car, on which came a solid team - up to 16 people.

After the war, the PMZ-1 machines were replaced with the newest models, and the “old women” were transferred to voluntary fire brigades for replenishment training. However, time was taking its toll, and soon they were left with only memories.

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  • PMZ-1 Fire Pump (1934)

    PMZ-1 Fire Pump (1934)

    PMZ-1 Fire Pump (1934)

    PMZ-1 Fire Pump (1934)

    PMZ-1 Fire Pump (1934)

    PMZ-1 Fire Pump (1934)

    PMZ-1 Fire Pump (1934)

    PMZ-1 Fire Pump (1934)

    PMZ-1 Fire Pump (1934)

    PMZ-1 Fire Pump (1934)

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