New space discoveries
New space discoveries, without explanation.
Scientists have yet to explain and solve these riddles.
Mysterious magnetic field of the moon
The moon was inert magnetically (it did not have its own magnetic field) for thousands of years, but one of the latest studies confirmed that this was not always the case. About four billion years ago, the inner molten core of the moon began to rotate against the motion of the mantle of the moon, like our earth dynamo, and the natural satellite of the earth acquired a powerful magnetic shield. Of course, this was supposed to be a much weaker version of the earth's shield due to the lack of mass.
But, to the surprise of scientists, our small moon could generate a much more powerful magnetic field than our home planet. No one knows why such a puny body has shown a powerful magnetic activity, and all explanations are reduced either to "we do not know" or to "magic." This puzzle shows that one of the most extensively studied Earth partners in the solar system has a set of unknowns.variables. Looks like the moon used some kind of exotic method to produce an incredible magnetic field. And it lasted for quite a long time, possibly due to the constant bombardment of meteorites, which fueled the magnetism of the moon.
The magnetic field disappeared about 3.8 - 4 billion years ago, but research on why this happened has yet to be developed. The most interesting is that the core of the moon is still a bit watery. Thus, despite the fact that the satellite of the Earth is, one can say, at arm's length, we still don’t know much about it.
13 billion years old galaxies
The young universe was a living hell - scrambled and opaque mousse of electrons and protons. Nearly half a billion years passed before this child cooled enough to allow neutrons to form. And after that the landscape in which stars and galaxies appeared appeared.
A recent ultra-deep study of the Subaru telescope, located in Hawaii and operating with the support of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, revealed seven youngest galaxies in general in the Universe.At a distance of 13 billion light years, they appear as subtle drops of light. In fact, they became visible only after Subaru concentrated on a tiny part of the sky and watched him for 100 hours.
Born just 700 million years after the Big Bang, these galaxies are among the earliest things in the universe that we could ever see. These types of galaxies are characterized by intense excitation of hydrogen and the absence of heavy elements (except for small collections of lithium), since they have not yet been formed in the process of supernova explosions.
These galaxies - emitters of Lyman-alpha (LAE) - appeared suddenly and for not quite clear reasons. LAE galaxies are prolific star producers, and their advanced age gives an idea of the evolution of the Universe. But astronomers are not sure whether these galaxies captured by Subaru were newly formed or existed before that, blocked by cosmic gas.
Magic Island Titan
Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, may be the most intriguing member of the solar system. In fact, it is a primitive earth, with its own atmosphere, fluid bodies and even geological activity.
In 2013, the Cassini orbital spacecraft discovered a completely new piece of land that mysteriously emerged from the second largest sea of Titan, Ligeria Mare. Soon after, the “magical image” also mysteriously disappeared into the translucent methane-ethane sea at a temperature of -200 degrees Celsius. Then he appeared again, with a much larger mass of the earth, during the next radar scan of Titan.
The ephemeral land confirms the assumption that the alien oceans and seas of Titan are dynamic components of the active medium, and not static features. Nevertheless, astronomers find it difficult to explain the physical processes behind ephemeral land. In addition, it has increased in size from 50 to 100 kilometers across since its first appearance.
Asteroid with rings
All of our gas giants are surrounded by rings, although most of these rings are thin bundles of garbage compared to Saturn’s massive set of rings. For the first time, and quite unexpectedly, astronomers discovered rings around the body, much smaller than the gas giant. Asteroid Hariklo, just 250 kilometers across,boasts a ring system.
Hariklo, despite its rather impressive size, looks like an unremarkable piece of stone. But astronomers have noticed that he has an anomalous light signature. When he eclipsed a distant star, an unexpected amount of light reached our telescopes. It turned out that Chariklo possesses two space necklaces at once. They contain a lot of frozen water, the largest of the rings in width is 7 kilometers, and the smallest is half the size.
And although some asteroids even have “moons” - tiny satellites nearby - Chariklo is unique, because they have never seen rings around asteroids before. The origin of the rings is still not clear, although there is an opinion that they formed at the stroke. Either these are remnants of a foreign body that Hariklo himself destroyed, or parts of Hariklo himself that remained after the crash.
Underproduction of ultraviolet
We are proud to find different types of balance in space. One of these balances is the correlation between ultraviolet light and hydrogen, both of which coexist in well-defined proportions.
A recent study, however, showed a significant underproduction of ultraviolet photons from known sources — a 400 percent discrepancy compared with the predicted values. Lead author Juna Kollmeyer compares the discovery to the fact that you enter a dazzlingly bright room, but you find only a few dim light bulbs that cannot produce as much light.
There are two known processes that produce ultraviolet radiation - unruly young stars and massive black holes - but in fact this radiation is more than these two sources can produce. Astronomers cannot explain the overproduction of the ultraviolet and are forced to admit that "at least one thing that we thought we know about the modern universe is not working." This is sad, considering that we were "well understood" the balance of ultraviolet radiation and hydrogen. As in many other cases in the past, astronomers had to return to the calculations.
It is also very interesting that this underproduction of ultraviolet radiation is manifested only at local distances. Peering further into space and time, astronomers find that their predictions are kept quite well.Perhaps missing radiation can be the result of exotic and still undiscovered processes. Including the decay of dark matter.
Strange X-ray pulses flow from the nuclei of Andromeda and Perseus galaxies. And the spectrum of signals (the signature of light) does not coincide with any of the known particles or atoms. Therefore, astronomers tentatively drool over the coming scientific breakthrough, since this phenomenon may be the first evidence of dark matter.
Dark matter - the elusive and invisible matter that makes up most of the mass of the Universe - may consist of sterile neutrons, which may or may not exist depending on different points of view. Allegedly, these particles produce X-rays in death cramps, and these emissions can explain bursts from the centers of the above-mentioned galaxies.
In addition, since the radiation comes from the nuclei of galaxies, it corresponds to areas with a high concentration of dark matter clusters. Perhaps we are on the verge of an important discovery.
Hubble showed an interesting asteroid that thinks he is a comet.If it is easy to recognize a comet by its bright tail, asteroids usually do not have such features: there is little ice in them and they consist mainly of heavy elements and stone. Therefore, the detection of an asteroid with six tails is an incredible surprise.
Asteroid P / 2013 P5 - is unique, it has six spouting jets. He scatters the material in space as a cosmic polivka of lawns.
It is not clear why this object behaves in the same way. It is believed that the P5 rotates so fast that it accidentally kills itself. Its tiny gravity does not match its rotational speed, so fast spinning tears it apart. The pressure of solar radiation sprays these debris, creating dazzling tails that look like comet's tails.
However, astronomers know that P5 is the remnant of a previous collision. Tails, most likely, do not contain ice at all, since hardly frozen water is found in the object, which before it exploded at a temperature of 800 degrees Celsius.
Distant Monster HD 106906b
Planet HD 106906b raises many questions. This monster is 11 times more massive than Jupiter, and its giant orbit calls into question all of our knowledge about the formation of planets. The distance from HD to the parent star is 650 A. e. (1 a. e.- distance from the Earth to the Sun).
Even Neptune, our farthest from the closest planets, revolves around the sun at a distance of 30 a. e. It's pretty far away, but HD is removed from its star a lot more. Astronomers are trying to find explanations for the existence of HD for all its mass and long orbit.
The forces responsible for creating planets no longer work at such gigantic distances, so the possibility arises that HD was created during the collapse of the ring of debris. But HD is too massive for that. And the primary disks of raw material from which the planets come out simply cannot contain as much “meat” to create such a monster.
Storms on Uranus
Uranus caught astronomers by surprise. The second largest member of our solar family, as a rule, keeps calm, but for some reason the planet is currently rich in storms.
Gorgeous storms on Uranus were expected in 2007, when the planet completed half of its 82-year orbit and entered the period of equinox. Nevertheless, the stormy weather had to gradually subside as Uranus continued on its way around the Sun. But that did not happen.
In the absence of an internal heat source, the green giant relies on solar emissions, fueling its storms.But astronomers from the University of California at Berkeley recently noticed a powerful activity in the upper region of the planet, covered with a layer of frozen methane. Some of these storms were as big as the Earth and shone so brightly that even amateur astronomers could detect glare on the planet.
It is not clear how the storms remain so healthy without the support of the Sun. The Northern Hemisphere has plunged into shadow, but continues to show powerful storm activity. It is possible that vortices deep in the atmosphere of the planet are caused by processes similar to those observed on the more turbulent Jupiter.
KIC 2856960, a system of three stars
The Kepler Space Observatory is usually busy hunting for new planets, but spent four years of its life tracking three gravitationally bound stars - KIC 2856960. KIC is a three-star mill, and a third celestial body rotates around two dwarf stars. Nothing fancy, just three stars.
Kepler observed four daily blackouts in a light curve when binary dwarfs crossed each six hours. He also saw another slight blackout every 204 days that the third star caused.You might think that four years of observation is enough to get to know KIC well. Astronomers thought so too. But after all calculations, the data lost their meaning in the context of the behavior of the observed stars. They could not even calculate the masses of the stars, although this is quite simple.
By now, the star trinity has astounded astronomers. There is one possible answer that is suitable for numbers, but illogical. Plus, it's almost unbelievable. The KIC system can hide the fourth star. Nevertheless, its orbit should ideally imitate the orbit of a third star, creating the illusion of a single object.