Nazca Plateau: Parade of Hypotheses

Nazca Plateau: Parade of Hypotheses

"For many centuries before the Incas on the southern coast of Peru, a historical monument was created, unparalleled in the world and intended for posterity. It is not inferior to the Egyptian pyramids in scale and accuracy.

But if we look there, looking up at the monumental three-dimensional structures of simple geometric shape, then we have to look from a great height at the wide open spaces covered with mysterious lines and images that seem to be drawn on a plain with a giant hand. "The secret of the desert. Maria Reiche.

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Naska Plate

Many geoglyphs of this plateau are so large that they can only be viewed from a great height. These magnificent monuments of antiquity, some of which were created many thousands of years ago, contain many mysteries. It is possible that such "cult drawings" reflected some of the most ancient astronomical knowledge that was part of the "temple science", the priests of which passed secrets from generation to generation.

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In 1939, the American archaeologist Paul Kosok organized an air expedition on the Nazca plateau.So, for the first time, sketches and photos were obtained, which allowed not only to capture strange geoglyphic paintings, but also for the first time to make a rough plan of the plateau. All further studies of the Nazca are in one way or another connected with the name of the German doctor of archeology Maria Reiche.

She began ground work in 1941 and after a few years achieved a complete mapping of the terrain with the help of military aviation topographers. In 1947, Dr. Reiche compiled an atlas of the Nazca images, in general confirming the topographic plan of Kosok.

The main content of the plateau, stretching more than 50 km from north to south and 5-7 km from west to east - all sorts of lines and lanes. There are about 13,000 of them; in addition, at least 700 more geometric shapes are known, including various trapeziums, polygons and spirals.3

The general panorama of the Nazca Plateau resembles a huge drawing board, dotted with perfectly smooth lines. These linear geoglyphs stretched to the horizon over rough terrain, strictly following their direction. Even modern geodetic methods to perform such work would be difficult.

The lines are strips-grooves with a length of hundreds of meters long, several tens of meters wide and 25-30 cm deep. Geoglyphs repeatedly overlap each other, which speaks of a whole epoch of their creation. Moreover, later images created by other generations of builders do not destroy their predecessors.

ASTROARCHEOLOGY

Even Paul Kosok, and then Maria Reiche, proved in their scientific works that the relative position, proportions and dimensions of the "Nazca lines" obey certain and rather strict mathematical relationships. For half a century of its unique research, Dr. Reiche came to the conclusion that the culture of the Nazca geoglyphs was uniquely associated with astronomical observations used in astrological and religious rites.

In fact, she proposed the concept of the largest open-air observatory in the history of mankind. However, another well-known expert on astroarcheology, Gerald Hawkins, holds a different opinion. He argues that no more than 20 percent of all geometric shapes can have "astronomical content."

HYPOTHESIS PARADE

Disputes on this subject are still ongoing.

The first Nazca researcher, Paul Kosok, noted in 1939 that separate lines indicate some stars and constellations, corresponding to different phases of the moon and points of sunrise - sunset. Based on this, he hypothesized that the Nazca geoglyphs are a grand astronomical calendar.4

Maria Reiche developed the ideas of Kosok and, together with her colleagues L. Dawson, G. Winkel and 3. Zelke believed that, besides astronomical purposes, the Nazca figures were used in mystical rituals. She substantiated this by the presence of more than a hundred images of labyrinths. In Indian traditions, labyrinths mark the entrances to the underworld and its ritual connection with the sky - the sun. Thus occult ceremonies of torchlight processions along the contours of totems were born.

Among the versions stands out the idea of ​​a “demographic valve,” according to which titanic work on laying lines was used to control the population. That is, during periods of strong population growth, leaders and priests occupied all able-bodied people with the hardest labor of digging grooves, which increased mortality and reduced fertility!

Mysterious images can also be found on the Palpa Pampa Plateau, located near the Nazca.It is half the size of Nazca, but there are more various images on it, among which there are more than a dozen of only human-like creatures, whereas on the Nazca plateau only one such figure is known, depicting a 30-meter “astronaut”.5

The star geoglyph is particularly prominent. On the kilometer square there is a six-pointed star with a 16-beam center and a lot of strange holes. Nearby is a smaller, 8-beam star and a double helix surrounded by wavy lines. Local archaeologists call this pattern "sundial."

Some archaeologists believe the famous image of the “star Palpa” is a prototype of the meteorological wind rose, indicating how local breezes, monsoons and trade winds blow.6

IN THE SKY OF PRE-AMERICAN AMERICA

Despite the skepticism of professionals, the idea that the mysterious plateau of Nazca and Palpa were the airfields of pre-Columbian America haunts many enthusiasts.

In the late 70s of the last century, the famous American aeronaut J. Woodman suggested that the ancient aborigines of Peru really could fly. To prove this, he launched the Nazca community project, which brought together a large group of amateur researchers.

A painstaking archival search began, which led to a mysterious picture on the wall of one of the tombs of Mesoamerica, built more than 2,000 years ago. It was depicted a strange figure: a tetrahedron, to which was attached something resembling a boat.

Thus arose an amazing construction of a tetrahedral balloon measuring 30 by 10 meters, made of cloth found in ancient tombs. A gondola-boat woven from reeds from Lake Titicaca was attached to it on vines. Lifting force of the balloon, according to the fantasy of researchers, gave the hot air and smoke from the fire in an underground tunnel.7

Surprisingly, the "Nazca airy boat" really "surfaced"! She flew two hundred meters, carrying Woodman and his fellow Englishman J. Notgoma! True, then the curious apparatus abruptly went down. The aeronauts dropped all the ballast, but the balloon fell to the ground and, freeing itself from the gondola-boat, soared again, flying a few more kilometers. Enthusiasts did not undertake other attempts to see the Nazca geoglyphs through the eyes of ancient inhabitants.

Another “aerial hypothesis” suggests that the art of gliding was familiar to the natives of America.The “Paracascan chandelier” is given as evidence. This giant trident embossed on a rock near the town of Paracas on the Pacific coast, with a large share of fantasy, can be mistaken for a two-killer glider. However, so far no one took up its reconstruction.

This giant trident embossed on a rock near the town of Paracas on the Pacific coast, with a large share of fantasy, can be mistaken for a two-killer glider.8

Nevertheless, in the flight of the ancient inhabitants over the Nazca plateau there is nothing so unusual. It is only necessary to recall that on the other side of the ocean, in the ancient Chinese kingdoms, in the II century BC. er successfully used manned kites. They were picked up by observers of the enemy army (including observing the steppe beyond the Great Wall of China), transmitting dispatches and even launching fireworks.

It is much easier to make a simple kite than a glider or aerostat, and strong winds constantly blowing over the Nazca and Palpa plateau will easily lift it to a height, from where the entire panorama of the geoglyphs will open.

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  • Nazca Plateau: Parade of Hypotheses

    Nazca Plateau: Parade of Hypotheses

    Nazca Plateau: Parade of Hypotheses

    Nazca Plateau: Parade of Hypotheses

    Nazca Plateau: Parade of Hypotheses

    Nazca Plateau: Parade of Hypotheses

    Nazca Plateau: Parade of Hypotheses

    Nazca Plateau: Parade of Hypotheses

    Nazca Plateau: Parade of Hypotheses

    Nazca Plateau: Parade of Hypotheses

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