Lviv pogrom

Lviv pogrom

Statements by Ukrainian diplomats that the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists of the OUN-UPA was unjustly condemned at the Nuremberg Trials have caused a shock in the world. “Historical truth” tells about the most famous “feat” of Bandera - the Lviv pogrom, when Ukrainian nationalists helped the Nazis to “clean” Ukraine from Jews.
The Germans entered Lviv on the morning of June 30, 1941. Ukrainian nationalists - the Bandera faction in the OUN, immediately created in the city their own authorities and the “Ukrainian people's militia”. The head of the Ukrainian government was Yaroslav Stetsko, who in the spring of 1939 published an article in the newspaper Novy Put, expressing his position on the Jews. Stetsko insisted that the Jews were “self-seekers, materialists, egoists,” “a people without the heroics of life, without a magnificent idea.” But, according to Stetsko, the Ukrainians “were the first in Europe to understand the disintegrating work of Jewry,” and as a result they disassociated themselves from the Jews a century ago, thus maintaining “the purity of their spirituality and culture.
“Moscow and Jewry are Ukraine’s biggest enemies,” wrote Stetsko.“I insist on the destruction of the Jews and the expediency of transferring to Ukraine the German methods of extermination of Jewry, excluding their assimilation.”
It was Stetsko who on June 30, 1941 read out the act of proclaiming statehood, which Ukrainian nationalists call the Restoration Act of the Ukrainian State: “The Restored Council of the Ukrainian State will closely cooperate with the National Socialist Great Germany, which, under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, creates a new order in Europe and the world helps the Ukrainian people to free themselves from the Moscow occupation. Long live the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, may the OUN Guide Stepan Bandera live! ”
And on the same day a three-day Jewish pogrom began, which was organized by the “Ukrainian people's militia” with the connivance and incitement of the Germans.

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The formal reason for the pogrom was the execution of prisoners in prisons in Lvov, which the NKVD conducted during the retreat of the Red Army. The Germans forced the Jews to remove the corpses and exhibited the bodies for public inspection so that the relatives of the prisoners could find and bury their relatives.German propaganda claimed that the pogrom is an act of "holy revenge" of Ukrainians for the crimes of the Zhidobolshevik party. As a result, Bandera killed about 4,000 Jews.

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On Tuesday, July 1, Lviv witnessed the first act of the pogrom. On that day, all Jews, men and women, were kicked out to clean the streets. As one of the survivors noted: “It was a very humiliating feeling - the doctors and professors were cleaning the streets with shovels in their hands ...” According to one girl’s memories, her neighbor was forced to take her toothbrush and clean the street with it. Jews were also forced to remove horse manure with hats. Judging by the photos, Ukrainians in Lviv entertained how Jews clean the streets.

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Here are Jewish men and women cleaning the street near the Opera. The two men control the process while the spectators in the crowd enjoy the spectacle.

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Professor of the University of Alberta from Canada, historian John-Paul Khimki, who wrote a scientific paper on the Lviv pogrom, cites evidence of surviving Jews: “No one tried to help,” Tamara Branitskaya recalled. “On the contrary, the crowd seemed to have received indescribable pleasure from all this.”

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Leszek Allergand told how dozens of people crawled on their knees for three kilometers to the Brigids prison, and all this time they were trampled and beaten.

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Leopold Ivanyer recognized some policemen: “These were the same Ukrainians who served in the Soviet police. They replaced the stars on their caps with tridents. We knew because they were patrolling in our area. ”

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“One Ukrainian especially crashed into Levin’s memory,” wrote historian John-Paul Khimki. - Elegantly dressed in a beautiful embroidered shirt, he beat the Jews with an iron stick. With each blow, pieces of skin flew into the air, sometimes an ear or an eye. ”

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The Lvov pogrom was documented in detail - a group of photographers and cameramen arrived in the city from Berlin, shooting for the Ministry of Propaganda of the Third Reich, because this material was later planned to be used as propaganda material for the eastern territories of the Reich. The arrows of the 1st division of mountain huntsmen "Edelweiss", the soldiers of which took photos as a souvenir, also distinguished themselves.

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Not only the men from the “militia” mocked the Jews, but also ordinary teenagers, and even children. Maria Hesiola recalls how she and her aunt tried to negotiate with the Ukrainians who came to their apartment. A nine-year-old boy stepped forward and decided the matter, saying to his uncle: "Let's go, old Jew."Of course, some of the children joined the pogrom in search of adventure, and the rest were young soldiers of the national revolution.

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One of the characteristic features of the pogrom was the humiliation of Jewish women. Similar precedents have already occurred during pogroms in Nazi-occupied Poland. In December 1939, Jewish women were forcibly stripped in Krakow — and many OUN members (especially those who soon became the backbone of the Bandera movement) were in Krakow at that time, waiting for the Soviet occupation of Western Ukraine.
In Lviv in 1941, women were kicked, beaten in the face and other parts of the body with sticks and handicrafts, dragged by their hair, tossed from one pogromist to another. Many publicly stripped naked.

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School friend Rosa Moskowitz became a communist activist. The crowd grabbed it, cut off her hair and drove naked through the streets. The girl returned home and killed herself.
A Pole who saved Jews remembers a 12-year-old Jewish girl who was beaten with a chain. Pregnant women were beaten in the stomach. Participants in the pogroms stripped a twenty-year-old Jewish girl, thrust a stick into her vagina and forced them to march past the post office to prison.

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Many Jewish men and women who were recruited to work in prisons were killed immediately after they completed their task. Numerous photographs depict victims of prison work, although at times they are mistakenly interpreted as photographs of victims of the NKVD. An example is the murdered Jews in the courtyard of the Brigid prison. On the back of the photo there is an inscription "Bluthof Lemberg", i.e. "Bloodyard Lviv". Unlike the corpses of the NKVD murders, which were laid out in neat rows, in this photo of the body they are simply chaotically thrown into a heap. White shirts are particularly striking, while the clothes in the photographs of the victims of the NKVD are dirty and gray. In the foreground, one of the dead has braces - if it were a prisoner of the NKVD, they would not be allowed to wear them.

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According to a Jewish source, the pogrom was stopped by German officers, although the distracted crowd demanded a continuation. As one of the survivors recalled, the crowd on Lonnitsky Street calmed down only after the intervention of a Gestapo officer who shouted with a reproach in his voice: “We are not Bolsheviks in the end!”

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In the following days, the German-Ukrainian team “C” carried out systematic killings of Jews at the local Gestapo (in the photo: a group of arrested Jews).The next major pogrom in Lviv was held on July 25–27, 1941: it was a “sacred revenge” in honor of the 15th anniversary of the murder of Petliura in Paris by Samuel Schwarzbart; another 2,000 Jews fell victims of the “days of Petliura” in Lviv.

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Some current pseudo-historians in an attempt to whitewash the Bandera OUN-UPA claim that it was not Bandera who took part in the pogroms, but some other Ukrainian nationalists. But the surviving documents refute these false speculation. Above - the certificate of a member of the Lviv "police". Below is a certificate of the composition of the OUN S. Bandera hiking groups.

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Oles Bandera is the brother of Stepan Bandera, doctor of social and political sciences. The Nazis peculiarly "thanked" their assistants: when the "cleansing" of Ukraine - the future Reich Commissariat - from the hands of Ukrainians was finished, the leaders of the Ukrainian nationalists, in vain dreaming of an independent state, went to concentration camps. Both brothers Stepan Bandera were tortured in Auschwitz.

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