How sat in 1954.
Original taken fromoper_1974at
In accordance with the instructions of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU, the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs reports on the state of affairs in corrective labor camps and corrective labor colonies, on measures taken by the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs after receiving camps and colonies from the USSR Ministry of Justice system in February 1954, and submitting a draft decisions of the Central Committee of the CPSU on measures to improve the work of corrective labor camps and colonies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
In the system of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs for the maintenance of convicts sentenced to deprivation of liberty there are 65 corrective labor camps and 798 corrective labor colonies and camp subunits.
As of April 1, 1954, 1,360,303 prisoners are held in camps and colonies, including those serving sentences:
for counterrevolutionary crimes 448 344 people.
for banditry, robbery and murder 190 301 people.
for robbery, theft, theft and other especially dangerous criminal offenses 490,503 people.
for hooliganism 95,425 people
135 730 people for official, economic and other crimes.
Among the prisoners held in camps and colonies: men 1,182,759 people; women 177,544 people; young people under 25 years old 383,243 people. (28.2%).
During 1953 and the first quarter of 1954, 589,366 prisoners were again sent to camps and colonies. During this time, 1 701 310 people left, of which 1 201 738 were released in accordance with the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of March 27, 1953 “On Amnesty”.
Thus, the number of prisoners held in camps and colonies on April 1, 1954, compared with the number on January 1, 1953, decreased by 1,111,944 people, or by 45%.
Forced labor camps are located mainly in remote and northern areas of the country - in the Far East, the Far North, the Urals, Siberia and Kazakhstan. They contain prisoners convicted of the most serious crimes for long periods (over 3 years).
Prisoners convicted of counterrevolutionary crimes, banditry, robbery and repeat offenders are kept in isolation from other prisoners. Convicted women are placed in separate camps and colonies.
Prisoners are provided with clothes, shoes and food in accordance with the standards approved by the Government. Hot food is given three times a day.
In addition, in the camp divisions and corrective labor colonies, paid canteens and a stall sale of necessary goods for prisoners, mainly food, sanitary and hygiene items, are organized.
In labor camps and colonies there are 1986 ambulatories, 1,167 hospitals and hospitals with 71,641 beds, which completely provide medical care for prisoners.
In order to restore the physical condition of the prisoners, there are health centers in which the prisoners receive the necessary rest under the supervision of doctors and improved nutrition. In 1953, 245,200 prisoners were let through the health units, and in the first quarter of 1954, 53,198 prisoners.
The basis of the corrective labor policy in the camps and colonies is the re-education of prisoners by way of familiarizing them with socially useful work and carrying out political educational work among them.
At present, there are prisoners in camps and colonies that are fit for physical labor, 55.6% of their total number, 32.7% are partially fit and 11.7% are disabled and elderly, who are mostly physically and age labor process can not participate.
All able-bodied prisoners work at enterprises and construction sites of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs and at the facilities of other ministries and departments. Prisoners with limited labor capacity are used for light work, mainly for the production of consumer goods and auxiliary work.
Prisoners are employed at work in various sectors of the economy: 182,000 people in non-ferrous metallurgy, 96,000 people in the oil industry, 95,000 people in the coal industry, and 60,000 people in the construction of power plants.
On the construction of railways 51,000 people, in the logging camps of the Ministry of Internal Affairs 229,000 people, on special constructions of Glavpromstroy and Glavspetsstroy of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs 93,000 people, in agricultural camps of the Ministry of Internal Affairs 45,000 people and at other industrial and construction sites 46,000 people.
Labor use of the other prisoners is organized at the place of their detention in the correctional labor colonies and camp units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs - Ministry of Internal Affairs.
These colonies and camp subdivisions are industrial and agricultural enterprises that carry out the state plan established for them by the forces of prisoners and are in full economic accounting.
In accordance with the national economic plan, labor correctional colonies and camp units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs - Ministry of Internal Affairs in the first quarter of 1954 produced 7580 horse harrows, which is 151.6% of the plan, 2,350 tractor couplings - 109.1%, and 2372 grain sorting - 98.8% , 1005 root tubers - 100.5%, 7840 grinding machines - 104.5%., 403 wind turbines - 100.7%, 1500 driven piston pumps for wells - 100%, 5000 manual fire pumps - 100% to the plan,
By 633 million rubles of consumer goods, including: by 489 million rubles of garments, by fulfilling the plan by 111%, by 51.1 million rubles of furniture (tables, chairs, sofas, cabinets, etc.) - 102, 2%, metal beds 55.7 thousand pieces - 92.8%, iron and black dishes 282 tons - 100.7%, aluminum dishes 886 tons - 86.6%, furnace and household casting 2686 tons - 98.2% and 1 017 pieces of button accordions - 127.1%.
In total, correctional labor colonies and camp units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs - Ministry of Internal Affairs in the first quarter of 1954 produced gross output of 996.2 million rubles, which is 100.3% of the plan.
In 1953, in connection with the amnesty, the majority of prisoners with high production qualifications were released from forced labor camps and colonies, as a result of which, until now, enterprises and constructions where prisoners are employed lacked skilled labor.
The USSR Ministry of the Interior is holding events for mass training of prisoners in various specialties. In the first quarter, 35,000 prisoners were trained and skipped in schools, on courses and by brigade apprenticeships in correctional labor camps and colonies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs - the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
In total, in 1954, 142,000 skilled prisoners will be trained in labor camps and colonies. In addition, the training of cadres of mass professions in the amount of 100,000 people is organized.
In accordance with the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of November 20, 1948 No. 4293-1703ss and March 13, 1950 No. 1065-376ss, prisoners in all camps and colonies receive wages for their labor, calculated on the basis of reduced (up to 30%) tariff rates and official salaries, with the use of piece-progressive and premium wage systems established for workers, engineers and technical workers and employees in relevant sectors of the economy.
In order to increase labor productivity and the interest of prisoners used in defense works,on mining of gold, on railway construction, construction of objects of the oil industry, construction of power plants, in the coal and forest industry, in accordance with the decisions of the Government, a system of credits of working days is applied.
This system currently operates in camps and colonies with a total of 737,800 prisoners (54.2% of the total prison population).
There are 1,807 libraries (stationary and mobile), 338 clubs, 929 clubs and canteens, 1,665 rooms of cultural education, 1,396 cinema installations (stationary and mobile), 89% of the divisions is radioed.
For prisoners, newspapers are issued at the rate of 1 central newspaper for 50 prisoners, 1 regional (regional, republican) for 25 prisoners and an unlimited number of local newspapers.
Logs are also written out. Political departments publish 39 large-circulation newspapers for prisoners and about 30,000 wall newspapers. At least 4 times a month, a free screening of films is provided.
In labor camps and colonies, there are amateur collectives of prisoners who, through the camps and colonies, give performances, concerts, etc.
Prisoners are guarded by the militarized rifle guard of the Main Directorate of Corrective Labor Camps and Colonies of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs.
As of April 1, 1954, the total number of guards is 1 48 049 people, including an average of 98.863 people, sergeant 37 688 people and officers 11 498 people.
To ensure the established regime, the fight against crime among prisoners and to prevent escapes in the camps and colonies, there are regime-operational devices.
In 1953, significant changes were made in the work of corrective labor camps and colonies related to the transfer in March 1953 of camps and colonies from the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs to the USSR Ministry of Justice and the implementation of the Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Council on Amnesty.
Under an amnesty, 1,201,738 people were released from camps and colonies, which amounted to 53.8% of the total number of prisoners on April 1, 1953.
For this reason, 104 camps and 1,567 colonies and camp units were eliminated. In this regard, the composition of prisoners held in corrective labor camps has significantly changed.
The overwhelming majority of prisoners began to make up personsthose convicted of especially dangerous criminal offenses (banditry, robbery, premeditated murder, recidivist criminals, and also serving sentences for counterrevolutionary crimes).
Amnesty withdrawal from the camps and colonies of a significant number of prisoners convicted of minor crimes and positively manifested themselves in places of detention, activating the rest of the prisoners against the activities of the camp administration.
As well as the inadequacy of on-site peripherals of the Ministry of Justice to the leadership of the camps and colonies had a negative effect on the maintenance of prisoners, on maintaining proper order in the camps and colonies and on the organization of labor use of prisoners.
In 1953, in the camps, the number of gangster manifestations and group disobedience of prisoners, in some cases accompanied by human victims, sharply increased.
In the first quarter of 1954, crime among prisoners decreased, however, continues to remain high. During the months of January, February and March, 129 murders were committed in the camps and colonies on the basis of gangster motives, personal accounts, revenge, because of enmity between the groups of criminal recidivism.During this time, 155 prisoners escaped from the camps, of whom 38 have not yet been detained.
The still high level of crime among prisoners and the large number of violations committed by them are the result of serious shortcomings in the regime of prisoners and in the political and educational work carried out among them.
The administration of the places of imprisonment focused on economic activities to the detriment of the fulfillment of the main task, which is to rehabilitate and rehabilitate convicts, to train the labor professions and return them to a fair working life after serving the sentence.
In the camps and colonies, proper isolation was not ensured during the placement of prisoners, taking into account the crimes they committed, and this made it difficult to rehabilitate prisoners and to use them, and the majority of prisoners, including young people, were not protected from the harmful influence of repeat offenders and other persons convicted of serious crimes.
A significant number of criminal manifestations in forced labor camps and colonies and cases of group disobedience of the camp administration is mostly explained by the fact that the camp leaders,their deputies and chiefs of the operative-regime apparatuses show indecision, and in some cases cowardice and untimely suppress these criminal manifestations with the withdrawal of the organizers of the disorder.
As a result of free communication with civilian prisoners, they establish close ties with them, carry out illegal correspondence through them, acquire items that are prohibited for storage in camps and colonies, alcoholic beverages. All this creates additional difficulties in the work of labor camps and colonies.
The leadership of the Ministry, the Gulag and the ITL did not show due demanding and perseverance in the steady implementation of this Government Decree.
In many camps and colonies, educational work among prisoners was replaced by the massive use of disciplinary measures, even for minor violations of the camp regime.
Major mistakes were made in the selection, placement and training of personnel in forced labor camps and colonies. In many positions in the GULAG system there were unprepared workers who had failed in their previous work.
The presence of a large number of compromised and unprepared workers employed at work in camps and colonies could not ensure the implementation of an effective corrective labor policy.
These workers committed gross violations of Soviet legality. However, the leadership of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Gulag showed tolerance towards them.
After being released from the camps and colonies, after the sentence is served, some prisoners are again on the criminal path. On April 1, 1954, 84,225 of the prisoners released under the amnesty were again prosecuted.
It is also worth noting the inaction of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs, the GULAG and the local bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, which conciliately relate to the facts of unfit judicial practice in cases of prisoners prosecuted for particularly malicious manifestations of banditry in corrective labor camps.
The courts in the consideration of criminal cases of gangster manifestations, accompanied by murders committed by prisoners in the camps, almost never used the capital punishment provided by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR dated January 13, 1953 - execution.
Thus, out of 2,167 prisoners brought to criminal responsibility for banditry in 1953, only 65 people were sentenced to death, and only 11 people were confirmed and executed.
Thus, gangsters convicted, as a rule, for up to 25 years of imprisonment, committing grave crimes again, practically do not bear any punishment, continue to terrorize other prisoners and to disorganize the activities of camp units.
Following the instructions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on strengthening the Gulag, labor camps and colonies with tested and trained personnel, the Ministry reviewed the entire personnel of the central administration of the Gulag, resulting in 38 people being released from work in the Gulag.
As of May 20, 1954, the peripheral organs of the Gulag were dismissed from work and dismissed from the system of camps and colonies: there were 30 people in the nomenclature of the minister.
The nomenclature of the head of the GULAG was fired by 39 people and other workers from among the commanding personnel of 1,716 people, most of whom compromised themselves at work or were unable to provide the plots assigned to them.This work continues at the present time.
Enrolled in camps and colonies from among those released in 1953 under an amnesty, convicted of newly committed crimes, are now placed in isolation from those first convicted in order to protect them from the harmful effects of repeat offenders.
The criminal recidivists were withdrawn from the general camps and isolated in strictly regime units, and the prisoners in the amount of 11,560 people who were not amenable to correction in the ITL system were transferred to further prisons.
Measures have been taken to eliminate the bureaucratic style of leadership in forced labor camps and colonies, practical assistance to camps and colonies has been enhanced through the departure of employees of the central office of the Ministry and the Gulag, the paper reporting of camps and colonies has been sharply reduced.
Based on a study of the state of affairs in corrective labor camps and colonies, materials produced by checking their activities and proposals received from the field, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR also prepared a draft CPSU Central Committee decree on measures to improve the work of corrective labor camps and colonies of the Interior Ministry.
USSR Minister of the Interior S. Kruglov
AP RF. F. 3. Op. 58. D. 169. L. 50-66.