Glaucoma treatment options
Glaucoma includes a large group of eye diseases, which are based on increased intraocular pressure, which is permanent or periodic. Together, this leads to vision problems and a decrease in its sharpness.
Possible atrophy of the optic nerve. If blood pressure is not relieved in a timely manner, then blindness can result. Therefore, the treatment of glaucoma is not only very popular, but is constantly being improved in order to preserve the patient's vision.
Definition of concepts
Glaucoma today is called a serious eye disease, which got its name due to the greenish color acquired at the peak of the pathological process. The pupil expands or becomes motionless (acute attack of the disease). The second name of the disease is green cataract.
Currently in medicine there is no complete picture, not only about the causes of glaucoma, but also about the mechanisms of its development.Glaucoma - causes, symptoms, treatment - is still undergoing a series of studies. But scientists have identified common characteristic signs of glaucoma.
- exceeding the individual allowable level of intraocular pressure;
- development of optic neuropathy - damage to the optic nerve fibers, leading to the development of atrophy in the final stage;
- visual impairment
Age has no connection with the occurrence of glaucoma. Even newborn babies can suffer from it. Gradually, the number of patients increases, reaching its maximum in old and old age. Glaucoma is a leader among those causes that lead to incurable blindness. And that is why it has an important social value.
Several medical terms
A certain equilibrium among themselves has an outflow and flow of fluid in gases. Its violation will lead to a change in the level of intraocular pressure and the development of glaucoma.
To the light-conducting components of the eye include:
- watery moisture;
- vitreous body;
The drainage system and its condition can be assessed using a special medical method called “gonikoscopy”. It allows not only to determine the width of one of the eye chambers, but also the state of the tissue structures of the eye and its channels. Based on the data of this study, it is customary to subdivide glaucoma into its main clinical forms - open and closed-angle.
Glaucoma is considered a multifactorial disease, since it requires a certain combination of several reasons that will lead to its occurrence. The most important of them consider:
- individual characteristics of the organism;
- abnormalities in the structure of the eyes;
- pathology in the area of the heart, endocrine and nervous systems.
Some scientists believe that a certain combination of risk factors is necessary for the onset of glaucoma and its progression, which will lead to the launch of the mechanisms determining its development. But the mechanisms of visual impairment are not fully studied until now.
The algorithm for the development of glaucoma has several steps:
- Violation of the outflow of fluid from the cavity of the eye. This leads to a variety of reasons.
- The pressure inside the eyeball gradually increases, reaching a critical level. Indicators will be strictly individual for each person separately.
- In the tissues of the eye, in the place of the exit of the optic nerve, blood circulation is disturbed. There is a lack of oxygen supply.
- Gradual squeezing of optic fibers in places of direct exit. The result is interruptions in the functioning of the fibers with their subsequent destruction.
- The development of neuropathy optic. Then there is a gradual death of the optic nerve.
The disease algorithm may develop in different ways. Partly nerve fibers, depending on the stage of development, can atrophy. Separate will exist in a kind of sleeping state. Due to this, it is possible to restore their functioning with timely therapy.
As a result of all of the above, an important conclusion can be made that the main focus in the rehabilitation therapy of glaucoma will be the normalization of the level of intraocular pressure.It must be brought to the mark that is individual for each and is called the “tolerant level”.
Forms and symptoms of the disease
Glaucoma is divided into several types:
It can develop at the genetic level or be caused during the prenatal period by various injuries or diseases of the fetus, as well as as a result of childbirth. This happens quite rarely and manifests itself in the first few days or months of a child’s life, and in some cases in a couple of years or more.
Characteristic for children less than three years. This form of glaucoma is diagnosed to the age of thirty-five.
The most common form of the disease. It is directly related to age-related changes that affect the eye area. It is also possible to interconnect with diseases that contribute to the damage of the structures responsible for the circulation of fluid inside the eye.
In the case of angle-closure glaucoma, rainbow circles appear when looking at any light source. There are cases of loss of short-term nature. Occasionally, pain may occur, as well as nausea or vomiting. Gradually, glaucoma becomes chronic, loss of vision is inevitable.
Diagnosis and treatment
Early diagnosis of the disease is extremely important, because it is the key not only to effective therapy. Glaucoma of the eye, which treatment is prescribed in a timely manner, will be stopped, and the risk of vision loss is minimized. The leading value is the determination of the level of intraocular pressure, as well as its regulation using the following methods:
- tonometry and elastotometry;
- tonography - for research data outflow;
- perimetry - the study of visual fields.
Before describing the basic principles of glaucoma therapy, you should again warn that the disease does not have good treatment methods. There are only satisfactory methods. All methods of treatment of glaucoma can be divided into the form of the disease and its stage.
Its purpose is to reduce the pressure inside the eye, as well as improve the function of the blood supply and normalize the metabolic processes. Special antiglaucoma drugs are prescribed that guarantee a good effect. Although in some cases they can lead to the opposite result. Therefore require strict supervision by the doctor. Dynamic observation is also necessary during the three weeks of instillation of the drug. It is necessary to undergo control studies at least once a quarter. Regular drug replacement should be made after a year or two to prevent the addictive effect. All drugs are divided into improving the outflow of fluid and depressing its products. “Pilocarpine hydrochloride”, “Glaucon” and “Xalatan” can be attributed to the first, “Clofelin”, “Timolol” and “Trusopt” to the second. Their combination is possible - “Proxofelin”, “Normoglaucon”.
Treatment of glaucoma with a laser.
Helps to eliminate blocks that stand in the way of outflow of fluid inside the eye. Currently, doctors use neodymium, argon and diode laser types under local anesthesia. Their action lies in causing a localized burn or microexplosion. The result is an improved outflow of fluid or its full recovery.This procedure does not require pain relief and can be performed on an outpatient basis. The rehabilitation period and complications are minimal, and the price is acceptable for a wide range of patients. There are also a number of disadvantages in such treatment of glaucoma, which include the risk of an increase in the level of pressure in the first hours after the procedure and the formation of injuries or adhesions in the field of laser operation. But, despite all the disadvantages, the feedback on this type of treatment is mostly positive.
It has many modifications and is assigned individually for each patient. The main indications are uncontrolled elevation of pressure, regardless of drug therapy, progressive deterioration of vision and negative dynamics of the disease. The preferred type of surgery should be chosen only by the attending doctor. Operations in the treatment of glaucoma are divided into penetrating and non-penetrating, aimed at reducing the circulation of aqueous humor, as well as its normalization. These include trabekloektomiyu, linoectomy, iridectomy, cyclocoagulation and a number of others.
Treatment of folk remedies.
It will not be possible to cure glaucoma only by home methods, but you can fix the result of any of the above methods.
The most popular means include:
- drink before each meal one glass of tomato juice with a tablespoon of honey daily;
- Rinse thoroughly and cut the aloe leaf into small pieces, then pour a glass of boiling water, leave for three hours, then strain the infusion and rinse the eyes twice a day;
- mix blueberries and honey in the same ratio and eat two tablespoons every day.
Folk treatment is not only widespread and affordable, but also tested over the years of use.
Every patient with glaucoma should become a real assistant to his doctor. To do this, you must be grounded in the breadth of information about your disease. It is necessary to monitor the state of vision, lead a healthy lifestyle, walk a lot in the fresh air and become hardened. Early treatment and prevention will be a success for healthy vision.
In the summer time, it is necessary to wear special glasses and a headdress with wide brims to protect against direct sunlight.In the performance of household duties, situations that may cause a rush of blood to the head as a result of the body bending down should be avoided.
Particularly attentive to their health should be drivers who are responsible for the health of passengers and pedestrians. You should also include in the diet vitamins A, E and C. And exclude from it coffee, liver, kidneys and spices. Alcohol is better not to abuse.
Glaucoma is a serious and dangerous diagnosis because it threatens the loss of vision. Therefore, it is better to prevent, timely identify and treat. A simple annual visit to an ophthalmologist and attentive attitude to your vision will help to identify the problem in advance and to do its comprehensive treatment, which will allow you to look at the beauty of the surrounding world with clear eyes.