Are you prone to coronary heart disease

Olga Nagornyuk
05.04.2016

Are you prone to coronary heart disease?

Diseases of the cardiovascular system in terms of mortality rank first in the world. The cause of almost 47% of deaths is heart ischemia. That this pathology is, how it manifests itself and is treated, we will tell in our article.

What is coronary heart disease?

Russia and Ukraine are leading among European countries in the number of deaths due to coronary heart disease (the short name is CHD). According to WHO statistics, it is least likely to die of coronary heart disease in France. Doctors associate this with the diet of local residents who regularly eat fish, red wine and olives.

Heart and cardiogram

Among Russians and Ukrainians, mortality is five times higher than among compatriots Dumas and Hugo. Therefore, it would be useful for us to know why ischemia of the heart appears and whether it is possible to reduce the risk of death.

To understand where ischemic heart disease comes from, one can only know, if only in general terms, its anatomy.The heart is the main and only blood pump of the human body. Thanks to the rhythmic contractions of its muscle - myocardium - it pushes, pumps blood to all internal organs.

Blood supply to the myocardium is provided by the coronary arteries. Having elasticity, they are able to expand when the need for heart blood and oxygen increases due to physical exertion.

However, due to the increased concentration of cholesterol, which is deposited on the eroded walls of blood vessels and forms cholesterol plaques, our coronary arteries lose their permeability and ability to increase in volume. As a result, myocardium is poorly supplied with blood, which leads to its pathology, known to us as coronary heart disease.

Atherosclerosis vessels

Forms of CHD

Ischemia of the heart unites a number of diseases resulting from myocardial damage, due to the disruption of blood flow in the coronary arteries. Coronary artery disease has the following forms:

Sudden coronary death

Sudden coronary death (the second name is sudden cardiac death) is a cardiac arrest that occurs within 6 hours of a heart attack.This type of coronary artery disease has the highest rate of deaths, and therefore is considered the most dangerous.

The provocateur that triggers this reaction is often alcohol consumption. The greatest chance of survival is for those who were given emergency care - they did a heart massage and ventilation of the lungs.

Heart massage

Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction - the death (necrosis) of a fragment of the heart muscle, which was deprived of normal blood supply. As a result, the load that fell on this area is redistributed between the muscles, which remain in the "working" state. The heart works with increased tension, and minimal physical effort can trigger myocardial rupture.

Myocardial infarction can be recognized by severe heartache, extending to the left arm and jaw, lack of air, discharge of cold sweat, a drop in blood pressure and the onset of severe weakness. The patient may begin vomiting, nausea, unreasonable fear. Nitroglycerin does not relieve pain, but only partially reduces it.

Angina pectoris

Angina pectoris, popularly called “angina pectoris,” is an episode of pain felt behind the sternum and often accompanied by a lack of air.At the same time, a person feels squeezing in the region of the heart, he develops weakness and excessive sweating. An attack of angina lasts a few minutes and occurs as a result of physical exertion, even normal walking.

Heart beat

This form of CHD has its own varieties:

  • angina pectoris is a retrosternal pain that occurs as a result of physical or nervous tension. The pain radiates (gives) to the left hand and often feels like a burning sensation in the chest. The attack usually lasts from 1 to 10 minutes, less often - up to half an hour and stops with the elimination of the load;
  • Coronary X syndrome - microvascular angina, caused by dysfunction of the small coronary arteries, not visible on the angiogram;
  • vasospastic angina, also called variant angina, cyclical (occurring at a certain frequency, for example, weekly) attacks of chest pain lasting 2-5 minutes;
  • unstable angina (spontaneous) - is similar in symptoms to angina, but, unlike the latter, has nothing to do with physical exertion. Her seizures occur when the patient does not move, often in the night and morning hours.

Postinfarction cardiosclerosis

Postinfarction cardio sclerosis is a pathological change in the heart muscle caused by myocardial infarction, when the scar tissue of connective tissue forms at the site of the dead myocardium, making it difficult for our blood pump to work. The patient has a cardiac rhythm disturbance, chronic heart failure, shortness of breath, intermittent chest pain, loss of appetite and general weakness.

Man holding his heart

Heart rhythm disorders

Heart rhythm disturbances - disruptions in heart rate:

  • tachycardia (heart palpitations) drains the heart;
  • bradycardia (slowing down) threatens with oxygen starvation and cardiac arrest;
  • extrasystole (irregular heartbeat) is dangerous because of the likely fatal outcome.

Heart failure

Heart failure - insufficient blood supply to tissues and organs. Externally manifested through shortness of breath, cough, swelling of the legs and abdomen, metabolic disorders. Chronic heart failure leads to hypoxia (constant oxygen starvation) of internal organs and acidosis (increased acidity). Acute heart failure can result in pulmonary edema, cardiac asthma, and cardiogenic shock.

Symptoms of ischemia

Despite the variety of forms, ischemia of the heart has common signs, allowing it to differentiate among other diseases.

Consultation with a cardiologist

Symptoms of coronary heart disease:

  • heartache. Most often it is concentrated on the left or in the center. Her character may be different: pressing, cutting, burning, piercing;
  • lack of air on the breath, which, as a rule, appears when moving and disappears when a person is at rest;
  • arrhythmia - failures in the rhythm of the heart. This can be heart palpitations, slow or chaotic.

If you notice one of these symptoms, immediately contact a cardiologist who will refer you for an examination and determine the form of ischemia. The range of research methods is extensive:

  • echocardiogram, reflecting failures in heart rhythm;
  • general and biochemical blood tests, giving an idea of ​​the level of cholesterol and sugar;
  • a chest x-ray that makes it possible to detect a vascular aneurysm and symptoms of congestion in the lungs;
  • ECG tests showing abnormalities in the work of the heart muscle during exercise;
  • Holter monitoring, recording changes in the heart during the day;
  • Ultrasound of the heart, during which the dimensions of the heart and the presence of failures in the valves are established;

Patient on ultrasound of the heart

  • MRI to help detect the presence of blood clots;
  • Angiography showing the condition of the vessels.

Based on the data obtained, the doctor will make a conclusion about the optimal form of treatment. It will depend on the type of disease and the severity of its occurrence and can be both medical and surgical.

Ischemia of the heart: treatment

Remember: treatment of coronary heart disease should be trusted only by professionals. You should not try to deal with the problem yourself, using folk remedies and the advice of friends.

Drug treatment of ischemia involves the reception of:

  • statins that reduce cholesterol, and with it the risk of cholesterol plaque and blood clots;
  • beta blockers that lower blood pressure;
  • aspirin, blood thinning and preventing the formation of clots;
  • nitrates that reduce pain during heart attacks.

Taking pills

Along with drug therapy, the doctor will advise you to reconsider your diet, removing foods that contain a lot of cholesterol from it, and optimizing physical activity, going on a daily 30-minute walk.

Risk factors and preventive measures

Coronary disease has risk factors, some of which we can influence (modified), and others - no (non-modifiable). The first are age, gender, race, and heredity.

According to statistics, ischemia of the heart is more often recorded in men than in women (up to 50-55 years, the ratio is 5: 1, after - 2: 1). Diseases are more susceptible to the elderly, as for race, Europeans are less fortunate: there are much more cases of disease among them than among people in Africa.

Sick old man

And now about the factors that influence in our power:

  • obesity. Excess weight increases many times the load on the heart, such people usually have problems with cholesterol, and this is a direct path to a disease called heart ischemia;
  • diabetes. It is impossible to cure it, so simply follow the advice of the doctor and monitor the level of sugar;
  • stress. Experiences, excitement, disorders cause the heart to work with a greater load, and with them the risk of ischemia increases. Consult with a psychologist and learn how to keep your psycho-emotional state under control;
  • hypodynamia. Labor and sport strengthen the vessels, and a sedentary lifestyle makes them weak.To avoid this, at least half an hour a day, go in for sports;
  • hypertension. High blood pressure and ischemia of the heart are twin brothers. Therefore, eliminate the factors that cause an increase in pressure: stress, high-calorie foods, alcohol;
  • increased blood clotting. Drink blood thinning drugs, try hirudotherapy, but only after consulting with your doctor.

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  • Are you prone to coronary heart disease

    Are you prone to coronary heart disease

    Are you prone to coronary heart disease

    Are you prone to coronary heart disease

    Are you prone to coronary heart disease

    Are you prone to coronary heart disease

    Are you prone to coronary heart disease

    Are you prone to coronary heart disease

    Are you prone to coronary heart disease

    Are you prone to coronary heart disease

    Are you prone to coronary heart disease Are you prone to coronary heart disease Are you prone to coronary heart disease Are you prone to coronary heart disease Are you prone to coronary heart disease Are you prone to coronary heart disease Are you prone to coronary heart disease Are you prone to coronary heart disease Are you prone to coronary heart disease Are you prone to coronary heart disease Are you prone to coronary heart disease Are you prone to coronary heart disease Are you prone to coronary heart disease Are you prone to coronary heart disease Are you prone to coronary heart disease Are you prone to coronary heart disease