10 rare features of the human body
We are all different, this is perfectly normal, but a small number of us have rare features that occur in literally a few percent of people. Some of them are just nice features of appearance, but there are some that Superman himself would envy.
Of course, the blood can not be gold in the literal sense, but there is blood with a very rare feature - zero Rh factor. In other words, it does not contain any antigens.
For the first time this feature was discovered in 1961 by a representative of the Australian Aborigines, and at the moment only about 40 people with such blood are known (which, however, does not mean that there are only 40 of them).
9 of them are donors, and incredibly valuable, since their blood is suitable for any recipient. And precisely because of the value and rarity, some doctors call the blood with a zero Rh factor "golden."
Long palmar muscle
This muscle is an atavism.It is a "legacy" of our ancestors and is responsible for the release of claws and strengthens the grip when jumping from tree to tree.
Checking if you have it is not difficult: put your hand on a flat surface, palm up, close the little finger and thumb, and then lift them up slightly.
If you see a ligament on your wrist, then you are the owner of a long palmar muscle. But do not worry if you have not found it - in modern life it is useless.
In ancient Greek myths, the chimera is described as a creature with the head and neck of a lion, the body of a goat and the serpent's tail. Of course, a person cannot be half animal, but he may well have 2 sets of DNA. For example, if, during fetal development, the embryo absorbs its twin.
Sometimes this is reflected on a person’s appearance in the form of a “mosaic” skin or multi-colored eyes, but more often he does not even suspect that there are tissues with different sets of genes in his body.
Chimerism does not cause people much concern, but it can cause family problems. There is a case when the mother wanted to take the children away, since genetic analysis showed that she was not related to them.Fortunately, it turned out that the woman suffered from chimerism, so the actual “mother” children accounted for the “devoured” twin, whose DNA was present in her body.
Double row of eyelashes
The presence of the second row of eyelashes is due to a rare genetic disorder called “distichiasis”. The most famous owner of "double" eyelashes was the Hollywood star Elizabeth Taylor.
When Liz was small, her mother was even reproached for allegedly tinting her daughter's eyes - they were so extraordinarily expressive thanks to this mutation.
Distichyas, as a rule, does not bring any inconvenience to those who have it. But in some cases, the second row of eyelashes may be too close to the mucous membrane of the eye and cause irritation.
Incredibly strong bones
Studying the gene LRP5 (he is responsible for the mineralization of bones), scientists have discovered a lot of mutations. Most of them cause diseases involving bone fragility, such as osteoporosis.
But it turned out that there is another type of mutation of the LRP5 gene. It gives a person super-dense bones that are almost impossible to break, and skin that is less susceptible to aging.
Of course, this sounds very cool, but there are some drawbacks here too. For example, when a certain elderly patient needed to replace a worn joint, it was not possible to make it because of the overly dense bones of the man.
Hole near the ear
You may have noticed in some people a tiny hole near the ear, similar to a piercing without an earring. This is a parotid fistula, it is formed during the development of the fetus and occurs in about 5% of people.
It is assumed that this is a kind of atavism, reminiscent of the fact that the ancestors of all living beings once had gills. This “hole” is often inherited genetically and can be present on only one or both ears.
If desired, the fistula can be removed surgically, but by itself it is not dangerous, although in some cases it can become inflamed.
"Extra" ribs are often found in the beautiful half of humanity. Apparently, for this reason, some people believe that women are born with more ribs than men, but in reality this is not the case.
These ribs are also called cervical, as they are localized in the cervical spine.Their sizes are different for different people - for some they are small growths, while for others they are full-fledged ribs.
These ribs in most cases do not affect the health and well-being of the person, but sometimes they reach impressive sizes and can cause discomfort.
The ability to perceive "invisible" colors
Another feature that is more common in women is tetrachromatia, or the ability to distinguish color shades much better than ordinary people do.
If we, looking at a dandelion, can describe its color as yellow, then the tetrachromat man will see a whole range of shades. This condition is caused by mutations in the X chromosome and gives the person additional cones (parts of the eye that absorb color waves).
Most people have 3 types of cones - they are tuned to the waves of red, blue and green, and 4 of them are tetrahromats. It is this difference that allows them to see up to 99 million colors, while the average person perceives no more than 1 million.
Low need for sleep
Perhaps these people are more fortunate than everyone else on our list. They are able to fully recuperate twice as fast as most of us.Among such lucky ones were Margaret Thatcher, Salvador Dali, Winston Churchill, Nikola Tesla and other prominent personalities.
And it's not only in the correct mode of the day, but also in the DEC2 gene, a small mutation of which was found in low-sleeping people. Scientists from the University of California San Francisco concluded that people with a mutation of the DEC2 gene can perform all the same tasks in less time.
In other words, they sleep more efficiently than everyone else. But how do they do it? The answer to this question has not yet been found.
Inability to increase cholesterol
And one more extremely small group of lucky people - they can eat almost anything, without thinking about how this will affect their cholesterol level. The risk of developing heart disease in such people is reduced by as much as 90%.
The fact is that they lack the working copies of the PCSK9 gene, and although the “underdevelopment” of genes usually entails problems, in this case it is an advantage.
This discovery decided to take advantage of pharmaceutical companies and began working on a drug that would block PCSK9 from other people.